UPSC/IAS-2017 Geography(Optional) exclusively at VVR-IAS by Ajay Raj Singh

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Crime And Punishment – Socio-Political Philosophy



Socio-political philosophy believes in co-existence of man and society or state which means they are necessary for each other and complementary as well. But there shall be a moral order between them. Morality is directly related to the outcome of the action which means positive outcome or honour for the positive actions and negative outcome or punishment for negative actions.

Moral science and ethics is an important branch of philosophy so, the theories of punishment are directly related to philosophy and that’s why right from the early period thinkers have expressed their thoughts on crime and punishment. We can say that the theories of punishment are relevant for social-philosophy, political philosophy and ethical philosophy.

But here the question is, what is the crime? In simple words, we can say that the crime is a human behavior, but all kinds of human behaviour can not supposed to be crime but only those behaviours which are against the social values shall be considered as crime. In every society we can see crime and criminals like disease and death.

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Socio-Political Ideals – Socio-Political Philosophy


Chapter: 1 (SOCIO-POLITICAL Philosophy)

If we do the detail study of the society then it includes the political studies as well, because in the broader sense, the social study includes the political, economic, religious, cultural, all the aspects. In this way, definitely political study is a part of social study.

But in restricted sense, the political study is confined only up to the political activities of the human beings. In addition, if we do the scientific study of the society then we will reach up to the sociology. But if we do the philosophical study of the society then it will be social philosophy. Similarly, if we do the scientific study of political facts then it is political science.
And if we do the philosophical study of political facts then it will be political philosophy.Altogether, we can say that the sociology and political science are descriptive, factual and natural sciences. But if we go through in the critical way or in normative sense or in evaluative manner, then it shall be called as socio – political philosophy, because where the different sciences are factual and descriptive are known as first order function, then on the other hand the philosophy is supposed to be a rational activity which is evaluative and normative and that’s why it is second order function which also can be known as deep study of a subject.

That’s why sometimes in order to do the deep study of a subject we have to depend upon the methods and arguments which have been recognized by the philosophy. That’s why after doing research in any subject the degree awarded is D. phil. or Ph. D. which means Doctor of philosophy.

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Indian Epistemology -Indian philosophy


Chapter: 13 (Indian Philosophy)

The term Jnana has been originated from Jna Dhatu of Samskrit which means to know. The knowledge may be true or false, in which the true knowledge is known as Prama while false knowledge is known as Aprama such as knowledge of rope in the snake. In any knowledge the knower is known as pramata, the knowing object is known as prameya while the means of knowledge is known as pramana. In Indian Philosophy six pramanas have been accepted -Pratyksha or Perception, Anumana or Inference, Sabda or word, Upamana or Comparison,Arthapatti or Postulation and Anupalabdhi or non cognition. Different schools have accepted the different number of Pramana.

As far as pratyaksha pramana is concerned, then this is known as prime pramana. Sometimes in order to put it at the level of prama it has been said that there is no need of proofs to perception. Etymologically the term Pratyaksha is made up of two words – pratiaksha, which mean in front the eyes, in general the knowledge received by all sense organs, is known as pratyaksha.

In order to clarify Pratyaksha, Maharshi Gautama said that- The knowledge originated by the contact of sense organs with the objects is perception if it is Avyapdeshya, Avyabhicari and Vyavasayatmak, where apdeshya means Nirvikalpak pratyaksha, where no knowledge of name and character does happen.Vyavasatmaka means Savikalpaka pratyaksha, where knowledge of name and character happens. Avyabhicari, which indicates towards doubtless knowledge.

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Buddhism – Indian philosophy


Chapter: 4 (Indian Philosophy)

Similar to Jainism the school of Buddhism also originated as code of conduct against Brahmanism and later got the philosophical form. It was established by Lord Buddha whose no original script is available because Buddha delivered his preaches verbally which was learnt by his disciples. Later on the scripts of Buddhism were compiled in the form of Tripitakas through Bauddh Sangitis. Four popular branches of Buddhism are known as Vaibhashika, Sautrantika, Shunyavada and Vijnanvada in which first two are Hinyani and last two are Mahayani. These four branches are in chronological order and we can see a process from gross realism to idealism in them, but Shunyavada is supposed as highest philosophical theory.Although in his  Ashtadasnikay shashtra, Vasumitra has mentioned about eighteen branches of Buddhism. Sometimes silence of Buddha over inexplicable questions is supposed as the cause of so many branches. Actually Buddha was a practical thinker and that’s why according to him indulging in metaphysiocal problems is actually wastage of time and energy. According to him, since the highest suffering is Dukkha that’s why he delivered his preaches of four noble truths based on sufferings in which we can see the seeds of all Buddhists theories.

As far as Vaibhashikas are concerned then they have got this name because they are based upon a commentary titled Vibhasha. Among the prominent scholars of this branch in addition to Vasubandhu we can also name Sangbhadra, Dharmkirti etc. in which Vasubandhu firstly went into the direction of Sautrantika and later on he was converted into a scholar of Vijnanvada which was a branch of Mahayanis. The main source of knowledge about Vaibhashika is Abhidhammkosha of Vasubandhu in which he not only has accepted the  material objects of the world but also said thatwe know the objects of the world through perception so their theory is known as Bahyapratyakshavada and that’s why they can be compared with Moore in western philosophy.

But in course of time another school got highlighted as Sautrantika against Vaibhashika which got this name because it is supposed to be based upon Suttapitaka. Among the prominent scholars of this branch in addition to Vashubandhu we can name Kumarlata, Srilabha,Dharmatrata etc. since it is also a branch of Hinyanis that’s why it is similar to Vaibhashikas but on the basis of pramana we can distinguish them cause according to Sautrantika the Bahyapratyakshavada of Vaibhashika can’t be accepted because it is not compatible with the Kshanikavada and goes against it. That’s why Sautrantika had propounded their theories as Bahyaanumeyavada which means we do the inference of external objects on the basis of their ideas left by them in our mind. Here we can compare Sautrantikas with the representative realism of Locke in western philosophy.

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