Chapter: 13 (Indian Philosophy)
The term Jnana has been originated from Jna Dhatu of Samskrit which means to know. The knowledge may be true or false, in which the true knowledge is known as Prama while false knowledge is known as Aprama such as knowledge of rope in the snake. In any knowledge the knower is known as pramata, the knowing object is known as prameya while the means of knowledge is known as pramana. In Indian Philosophy six pramanas have been accepted -Pratyksha or Perception, Anumana or Inference, Sabda or word, Upamana or Comparison,Arthapatti or Postulation and Anupalabdhi or non cognition. Different schools have accepted the different number of Pramana.
As far as pratyaksha pramana is concerned, then this is known as prime pramana. Sometimes in order to put it at the level of prama it has been said that there is no need of proofs to perception. Etymologically the term Pratyaksha is made up of two words – pratiaksha, which mean in front the eyes, in general the knowledge received by all sense organs, is known as pratyaksha.
In order to clarify Pratyaksha, Maharshi Gautama said that- The knowledge originated by the contact of sense organs with the objects is perception if it is Avyapdeshya, Avyabhicari and Vyavasayatmak, where apdeshya means Nirvikalpak pratyaksha, where no knowledge of name and character does happen.Vyavasatmaka means Savikalpaka pratyaksha, where knowledge of name and character happens. Avyabhicari, which indicates towards doubtless knowledge.